Vinod K. Aggarwal
Institutional Designs for a Complex World: Bargaining, Linkages, and Nesting, 1998
International institutions are rarely created in a vacuum. When new institutions are developed, they often must be reconciled with existing ones. One approach to achieving such reconciliation is by nesting broader and narrower institutions in hierarchical fashion. Another means of achieving harmony among institutions is through an institutional division of labor, or “parallel” linkages. The challenge of institutional reconciliation is not, however, unique to the creation of new ones. In lieu of creating new institutions, policymakers might also modify
existing institutions for new purposes. When doing so, they must also focus on issues of institutional compatibility. Moreover, bargaining over institutional modification is likely to be strongly influenced by existing institutions.